Cooperation with China

The diplomatic relations between the countries date back to October 2, 1949

The diplomatic relations between the countries date back to October 2, 1949. The Soviet Union was the first foreign state to acknowledge China.

The Russian-Chinese ties stand out for their dynamic development, solid legal basis, diversified nature and active contacts across all levels.

Major principles and lines of bilateral cooperation are outlined in the Treaty of Good-Neighborlines, Friendship and Cooperation of July 16, 2001. Around that time the two states and their partners started the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
Today’s Russian-Chinese ties are appreciated by the countries as a comprehensive equal and confidential partnership and strategic collaboration.

Russian President Vladimir Putin and his Chinese counterpart President Xi Jinping meet annually. There is also a mechanism in place introduced in 1996 that provides regular (annual) meetings of the Russian and Chinese Premiers. Also, the partners run an Interparliamentary Commission for Cooperation of Russia's Federation Council and State Duma and China's National People's Congress. The states regularly exchange delegations representing special parliamentary committees, as well as Parliamentary Friendship Groups.
Pressing political and economic issues pertinent to the Russian-Chinese cooperation are addressed within the BRICS and SCO framework as well.
Essential for bilateral relations between the countries is trade and economic collaboration.

The Defense Ministers of the two states also come together quite regularly. November 11, 1993 saw the two officials sign a Military Cooperation Agreement. Contributing to it are joint military exercises, including anti-terrorist drills.

The Russian-Chinese military and technical cooperation went through two stages as it developed. Military contacts between the USSR and China were established as far back as 1949 and lasted until 1969 when deterioration of the Soviet-Chinese ties precipitated their demise. Though before it came, China had received from the USSR several million worth of military equipment and weapons. In 1951-1960, the Soviets rendered technical assistance to China in construction and outfitting of military installations. Besides, the USSR granted to China 650 licenses for production of military equipment in 1949-1962. Thousands of Soviet specialists helped their Chinese colleagues master this equipment, while at the same time thousands of Chinese were in the USSR receiving training.

No sooner had 1990 came than Russia and China resumed their military and technical cooperation. This is based on the provisions of the Intergovernmental Agreement on Military and Technical Cooperation of November 24, 1992 and Memorandum of Understanding between Russia and China on Military and Technical Cooperation of December 18, 1992. The two states established a Military and Technical Cooperation Committee that convenes once a year alternatively in Moscow and Beijing.

In 1992-2004, Russia supplied China with lots of military equipment. It included 100-plus combat aircraft and helicopters of various types, particularly Su-27 and Su-30MKK fighters.

Russian specialists took part in designing China’s J-10 and JF-17 fighters, as well as L-15 combat-trainer. Transfer of design documentation from Russia to China paved the way for licensed production of the Su-27SK, dubbed FJ-11, in Shenyang, China, that started in 1998.

Other military equipment supplied to China included short- and mid-range AD systems, among them Tor, Tunguska, Buk, as well as MLRS, armored vehicles, destroyers, and submarines. In 2010, Russia performed its obligations under a contract for supply of 15 S-300 SAM battalions to China. In 2011, Rosoboronexport signed several contracts with China’s Ministry of Defense for supply of aviation engines. A recent milestone in the military and technical cooperation between Russia and China is by all means the supply of Su-35 fighters.

Russia’s special arms exporter is a permanent participant of Airshow China, the largest Asian international airspace show that China has held in Zhuhai since 1996. 

China hosts a representative office of Rostec, Russia’s state corporation, that also projects Rosoboronexport’s interests in the country. Telephone: (+8610) 653-222-01, fax: (+8610) 653-201-33, e-mail: