Aerospace systems
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Launch vehicle

The Proton-M heavy-class launch vehicle (LV) is an upgraded version of the Proton-K.

The LV is able to deliver payloads directly into designated geostationary orbit points, thus making possible the insertion of satellites which are not equipped with an apogee propulsion unit.

It can liftoff from launch pads currently operational at the Baikonur Cosmodrome.

The Proton-M is designed as a tandem LV with transverse separation of stages.

It is composed of three stages and spacehead with Breeze-M upper stage as forth stage.

All stages of the LV and upper stage are fueled by hypergolic propellant components: unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine as fuel, and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidizer.

The Proton-M has a larger payload fairing as compared with Proton-K in order to double the space available for payloads.

Upgrading (replacement) of the control system enables to improve power performance as well as operational and environment characteristics of the LV.

The Breeze-M upper stage enables to deliver 3-3.2 ton payloads into geostationary orbit.

Main characteristics
LV type
liquid propellant, three-stage
Control system
autonomous, inertial
LV liftoff mass, t
Length (without the upper stage), m
LV span, m
Payload mass, kg:
LEO (h = 200 km, i = 51.6°)
GTO (Hp = 5,500 km, i = 25°)
GEO (Hcirc = 35.786 km, i = 0°)
max 3,700
Low Earth orbit injection accuracy:
DHp, km
 2
DHa, km
 4
DT, s
up to  3
Di, ang. min
up to  1.8
Flight reliability